Steven M. Bellovin
IP-transparent firewalls require access to the external Domain Name System (DNS) from protected internal hosts. Misconfigurations and misuse of this system can create internal administrative and security problems.
Dnsproxy provides access to and protection from untrusted DNS services. It runs on a firewall, or on a trusted host just inside the firewall. The program receives (or intercepts) DNS queries and forwards them to an appropriate internal or external ``realm'' for processing. The responses can be checked, filtered, and modified before they are returned to the requester. The logging and consistency checks can provide information about possible DNS attacks and irregularities that are not available from most DNS implementations.
Recently we have installed a dynamic, or smart, packet filter. This newer technology allows us to have most of the security promised by an application-level approach, with much better performance.
A dynamic packet filter acts very much like traditional router, except that it keeps track of each TCP circuit, and permits bidirectional packet flow for each TCP circuit until the connection is terminated. Our users no longer need modified client software or proxies to access the net---they can get there themselves.
This gateway is transparent to permitted IP packets flows, which means we need something like standard DNS access to the Internet. This brings two problems:
The second problem is of our own making, but we expect that many sites are facing similar problems as their gateway technologies evolve.
Most of the known attacks are based on the fact that many popular Internet protocols rely on name-based authentication. If a client connects to a host using rlogin, the server does a reverse lookup of the client's IP address, and consults a table of trusted clients. If an attacker can subvert the DNS, this mechanism is broken. An attacker can force the target to make a normal query, and return additional irrelevant glue records to that query. These glue records are cached, and consulted on the subsequent query, giving the wrong answer.
We have seen DNS packet injectors and related tools in hackers' toolkits captured by law-enforcement folks.
It was clear to us that we could not allow an external name server to give us any information about an internal host or network. The DNS reply had to be unpacked, examined, censored and filtered, repacked, and forwarded to the recipient. This is an application-level gateway for external DNS services.
We also wanted to filter out all external NS records, to keep from polluting our internal DNS tree. In fact, we filter any record that is not explicitly necessary and common. There are a lot of miscellaneous and apparently harmless DNS records. We won't pass them until there is a need. As a performance optimization, we do pass back inside NS records; this allows inside resolvers to contact insider servers directly on subsequent queries.
We considered checking the address returned in the A record. Could an attacker harm us if he said his host was on one of our internal nets. We couldn't think of an attack, but one turned up in February involving Java (see CERT Advisory CA-96.05, March, 1996, and [dewa96]). It was easy to install the check, because we had the right tool in place.
The realm's name server sends its reply to dnsproxy, which examines the response. The following checks are made:
Each of these three schemes has its advantages and disadvantages. The third scheme is likely the best. Insiders see the same image of the world as do outsiders. NS records need not be deleted, save for those that refer to the inside domain. And it doesn't matter where a host learned of a DNS server's address; the address will just work.
The problem is that this deployment mechanism is very dependent on the details of your firewall. Not all firewalls permit this sort of dynamic processing---simple packet filters do not---and those that do differ widely in their design.
The second scheme works well for large organizations; it has the disadvantage that it produces an inconsistent view of the world. There are then two sets of root servers, the outside's and the inside's. A laptop that lives in both worlds would need two different configuration files.
It would be least intrusive to use local resolv.conf files or forwarders entries in named.boot files is the least intrusive mechanism. Only the local machine is affected; it does not require organization-wide deployment. Furthermore, it works even with ordinary packet filters. The problem is that this approach doesn't scale; it may not be feasible to change all of the machines in a large organization. As such, it is best for experimental use or within relatively small groups. We have found that the benefits of the dynamic packet filter have given our users strong incentive to point their resolvers at the dnsproxy service.
We are currently using this latter choice, precisely to avoid impact on the rest of the company. At this stage, the code is experimental, and we are not prepared to deploy it widely. Ultimately, we will likely modify it so that it can be integrated with our dynamic packet filter.
It's not surprising that we have found it vital to duplicate the dnsproxy service. Since all name server queries come through it, its host provides an annoying single point of failure. Each realm has at least two servers, as well.
But the users see snappy response times. Typical round-trip times are about 10ms.
The problem is that a server may fail to respond because it hasn't obtained an answer, or because it is down. With a hefty load such as ours, we get plenty of indications that a server is working, but it is harder to tell if it isn't.
At first we tried a moving average of server response times. They all started with a high average, and quick responses brought the average down. If we gave up on a query, we included the timeout in our average. This worked well enough, and wasn't hard to implement. But we found a simpler way.
Resolvers are accustomed to timing out, and reissuing requests: typical retries arrive within three seconds. We can use this flexibility to waste an occasional request in the name of scheduling. To do this, we keep track of the number of outstanding requests to each server. We send the request to the server with the shortest queue. Even under heavy load, we usually get our answer before a new query comes in. Typically, one server handles all of the load until a single query gets stalled. Then it switches to the other. If one server goes down, the second starts handling the entire load within a couple of requests.
On the other hand, Bind is already a very large program; adding more security-critical functionality to it may not be a good idea. We're likely to continue running dnsproxy no matter how the base code changes.
inside 184.108.40.206 error outside 220.127.116.11 defaultqueries to 18.104.22.168 port 53 would be forwarded from port 54 in dnsproxy, and queries to 22.214.171.124 would come from UDP port 55. If a debugging version of dnsproxy is listening to port 9953, these ports would be 9954 and 9955 respectively.
This is a sample configuration file. The realm section describes the realm name and servers. It also can process erroneous requests or be the default (keywords error and default) if a query does not match any entry in the switch section.realm inside 126.96.36.199,188.8.131.52 error outside 184.108.40.206,220.127.116.11 default switch outside any www-db.research.att.com outside any www.research.att.com outside any ampl.com outside any dnstest.research.att.com inside any att.com inside any ncr.com inside any lucent.com inside any attgis.com inside any 135.in-addr.arpa inside ptr 127.in-addr.arpa inside any 11.192.in-addr.arpa inside any 19.192.in-addr.arpa inside any 94.128.in-addr.arpa inside any 127.192.in-addr.arpa inside any 222.131.in-addr.arpa inside any 243.132.in-addr.arpa inside any 206.141.in-addr.arpa inside any 25.149.in-addr.arpa inside any 52.153.in-addr.arpa ... inside any 87.153.in-addr.arpa outside any * filter outside block * NS * outside block * A 135.104/16 outside block * A 135.180/16 outside block * A 127/8
The switch section is an ordered list of query types and the realms that process them. When a query arrives, dnsproxy runs through the list to find the first match, and dispatches the query to the given realm. This crude data structure eats much of our processing time, and should probably be improved.
The filter section is for responses, and is specified per realm. In this example we explicitly filter out all NS records, and any A records that refer to our internal addresses. Other filtering occurs as well, as described above. Our filter rules are fairly primitive. One should probably be able to match any specific type of resource record. We haven't needed this generality yet, so the code is currently fairly crude.
Dnsproxy generally logs to syslog. The usual syslog level controls the detail and severity of logging information. At the debugging level it produces a full dump of every query and response, producing a torrent of output. At a typical syslog logging level of notice, only records with unusual reason codes are displayed.
The routine logging can show a host of ills and configuration mistakes that might be normally missed. After we sifted through these, we raised the logging level. Error logs should be normally silent, so really unusual events won't get buried in a sea of mundane trivia. It has been a bit difficult to get the logging level right.
Dnsproxy does not handle tcp requests at present. This hasn't been a problem in our environment, but there are name servers that rely on this ability.
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